Before reaching an agreement with a neighbouring country, the Schengen State must obtain the authorisation of the European Commission, which must certify that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring EEA state and the Swiss on the Schengen side of the border area at least grant reciprocal rights and accept the repatriation of those who have abused the border agreement. Permissions are issued for a validity period of one to five years and allow you to stay in the border area for up to three months. Permissions may only be granted to legitimate residents of the border area who have been in the border area for at least one year (or more if provided for in the bilateral agreement). Applicants must prove that they have legitimate reasons for frequently crossing a land border under the local border transportation system. Schengen states must maintain a central register of authorisations issued and allow other Schengen states immediate access to relevant data. Since June 2017, ten urban transport agreements have come into force. However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa.
 In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it « in exceptional circumstances » and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand nationals can stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already entered into bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the entry into force of the bilateral visa waiver agreement, without the need to apply for a long-term visa. but if you are travelling to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within 180 days.              [Excessive Quotes] Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreements with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or by helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (including customs) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders.